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Horticulture is Australia’s third largest agricultural industry, accounting for 17% of the country’s total agricultural production value in 2022–23.

The horticulture industry includes the production of fruit, vegetables, nuts, flowers, turf and nursery products for domestic and international markets. Most growers are small-scale family farms, but the number of medium to large farms is increasing.

Challenges to the industry include competition from imported produce, labour shortages, seasonal fluctuations in supply and demand, and the effects of climate change. To stay successful, the industry is exploring new production methods and working to manage natural resources.

The overuse or ineffective application of antimicrobials to control horticultural diseases can lead to the development of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). AMR can also enter the industry through the water used to irrigate crops and wash produce. Dissemination to other environments via soil, air and water threatens other industries as well as human and animal health. Without adequate control, AMR is a risk to horticulture product safety, exports, and supply chain integrity.