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Aquaculture is a growth industry in Australia. It has been valued higher than the wild-caught seafood sector since 2020.

Across the country, a diverse range of species are farmed at varying scales, from hobby farms to corporate industrial production: Atlantic salmon and prawns, trout, tuna, barramundi, various groupers, cobia, kingfish, Murray cod, jade perch, several oyster species (edible and pearl), abalone and several crayfish species.

Australian aquaculture is capitalising on an ongoing commitment to research and development in areas such as species development, nutrition and feeding, selective breeding, disease management and technological advances that can increase yield while reducing environmental impact. Improved production and management techniques have the potential to grow seafood with the smallest use of environmental resources of any primary production sector.

Infection and disease present the highest risk to the production and economic viability of aquaculture enterprises. Antimicrobials may be used to prevent and treat infections in aquatic species, but their use can contribute to the development of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Within aquaculture, the presence of AMR would have implications for food safety, productivity and sustainability. If AMR spreads from aquaculture production facilities to surrounding environments, it could threaten other industries as well as human, animal and environmental health.